Stopenjsko besedotvorje. Na primeru glagolov čutnega zaznavanja

This monography entitled The Multistage Word Formation (Case Study of the Verbs of Sense Perception) presents the word-formation and content-formation capabilities of verbs that denote perception of the five senses: sight, hearing, smell, touch and taste. The standpoint is based on a multistage method that extends research of the binary relation between the motivating and the motivated word into research of the relation between a non-derivative word and all of its direct and indirect derivatives.

The first three chapters define the terms: verbs of sense perception, multistage derivatives (multistage word formation) and lexical meaning. Chapter two, in addition to defining multistage derivatives, also firstly describes theoretical approaches, defines words from (conventional) word formation, and continues by focusing on multistage word formation. A historical overview of the evolution of multistage methodology is presented as well as key works that emerged based on this methodology, along with the definitions of basic terms. The achievements of Polish multistage word formation and its forty year tradition are given particular attention. Chapter three is dedicated to lexical meaning and includes mainly outlines from works by A. Vidovič Muha.

In chapter four of the monography, the material which serves as the basis for further word- and content-formation analysis is collected. It encompasses 38 word-formational groups with 1195 multistage derivatives. In addition to the five basic verbs: to see, to hear, to smell, to touch, to taste, there are also 164 other verbs, including verbs that do not denote sense perception in their 1st meaning, but rather in their 2nd , 3rd or consequent meanings. Verbs of sense perception are considered very basic verbs that demonstrate high productivity. As a result, the (multistage) word-formation breakdown illustrates a complex image of the word- and content-formation mechanism in Slovene language. The following Slovene dictionaries were used for the material basis in creating word-formational groups: Slovene Literary Language Dictionary (1970–1991, 2014), Slovene Orthography (2001), Dictionary of Recent Vocabulary of Slovene Language (2012), Slovene Language Vocabulary (1998); and two language corpuses: Gigafida and Nova beseda. The word-formational groups are firstly classified according to the word-formation classification of the word-formation base; furthermore derivatives with verb bases are then classified according to the meaning of the word-formation base: according to whether it is the initial meaning (primary, first) or a subsequent meaning, or according to whether the specific meaning is connotative or not.

The analysis of the material in chapter five is consistent with the illustration of word-formational groups in chapter four. Word-formational groups or multistage derivatives from simplex verbs of sense perception are analysed first (chapter 5.1). Within this group, derivatives whose word-formation base are verbs whose first meaning denotes sense perception are analysed first (5.1.1), followed by those with a base of verbs whose consequent meanings denote sense perception (5.1.2). The third subchapter analyzes the multistage derivatives from verbs with connotative meaning (5.1.3), first those based on verbs whose first meaning is connotative ( and then those whose consequent meaning(s) is connotative ( It is followed by an analysis of multistage derivatives from derived verbs of sense perception (chapter 5.2), with a substantive (5.2.1), adjectival (5.2.2) and interjectional (5.2.3) derivative base.

The analysis in each of the subchapters is in the first part mostly statistical: firstly the number of derivatives by individual word-formational groups are illustrated, followed by the illustration of derivatives according to their part of speech categorisation, the number of derivatives according to the word-formation stage, the illustration of the proportion of individual parts of speech by word-formation stage, followed by the illustration of word-formational models according to the word-formation stage, the load of word-formational models, and finally followed by the illustration of the structure of subgroups/subgroup and a graphical display of the entire word-formational group. In the latter, the very structure of the word-formation derivatives is the most evident. In the graphical display, the direction of the lines illustrates the formation of the derivatives of a specific part of speech; the thickness or the form of the lines also indicates the abundance of derivatives in an illustrated word-formation model: high productivity (more than 51 derivatives), medium productivity (from 21 to 50 derivatives), low productivity (from 6 to 20 derivatives), sporadic productivity (from 1 to 5 derivatives). In the last part of the analysis, which is also the core part of the doctoral thesis, the focus is on the analysis of the so-called word-formational sequences, particularly in terms of word-formational meaning, word-formative types and also lexical meaning. The purpose of the latter is primarily to view the definitions in the Slovene Literary Language Dictionary from a word-formation and content-formation perspective.

Chapter six gives suggestions for the amelioration of lexical analyses in the Slovene Literary Language Dictionary, particularly from the perspective of the analysis of meanings, inconsistencies in lexical definitions and qualifications.

In the conclusion, some preliminary theses are confirmed, namely that the number of derivatives in the word-formational group and the depth of the word-formational sequence depend on the usage frequency of the word-formation base; verbs denoting sense perception in their second and consequent meanings are proven to be less productive in word formation; modifications in meaning inside the word-formational sequence of topic-related lexemes are systematic, which means that the subsequent derivatives are in majority also predictably content-formed; and the final confirmed thesis which presupposed that verbs whose meaning does not include a constriction, such as secretly/attentively/angrily (to look), in relation to those who include such a constriction in meaning, are more productive, which means that the broader meaning of sense perception is more productive in content- as well as word-formation.

Table of content


1 Opredelitev glagolov čutnega zaznavanja
2 Opredelitev stopenjskega besedotvorja
3 Opredelitev slovarskega pomena
4 Besedotvorni sestavi z glagoli čutnega zaznavanja
5 Analiza stopenjskih tvorjenk iz glagolov čutnega zaznavanja
6 Predlogi za izboljšanje slovarskih obravnav v prihajajočih jezikovnih priročnikih – glede na razlage v SSKJ-ju
7 Sklep

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paperback • 14,5 × 21 cm • 256 pages


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